David Troughton was born in Hampstead, London. He is the son of actor Patrick Troughton, elder brother of Michael Troughton, and father of actors Sam Troughton and William Troughton. He comes from a Jewish theatrical family and he attended Orange Hill Grammar School in Edgware with his brother Michael. Another son is the Warwickshire cricketer Jim Troughton. Troughton is also an uncle of the actor Harry Melling.